Type Of Monitor Type Most Frequently Used

Juli 27, 2018
Monitor is one of the most important parts of the computer. Without a monitor, then we can not possibly operate the computer properly. Just imagine if we have to type without having to use the monitor, it would be very difficult for us to make sure that our typing is correct. It is also very difficult for us to do other work such as photo editing, video editing, and other kinds of work which in principle require visualization so we can make sure that what we do is right. That is the importance of LCD monitors and other types of functions.

Therefore, one of the things we need to know is about what kind of monitor types are out there, so we can know what kind of monitor is right for our needs. Like the types of printers, there are many types of monitors out there that you may not have used or known about. By studying this type of monitor, you can learn or know which monitors might be most appropriate to use as your home computer monitor.

What are some types of monitor types? So that you do not get curious, here are some types of monitors that you have summarized from various sources.

1. CRT Monitor

For you who use computers in the era around the 2000s, then this one must be very familiar monitor. CRT monitors are often also called tube monitors, because of their large shape. In addition, it is often referred to as a convex monitor because the screen forms a convex and is not flat (on some models). This type of monitor is very old and may be found in old computers or old. Trend, this monitor is no longer used because the technology is outdated and has appeared many variants such as LCD monitors, LEDs, and others that offer better image quality and portability.

CRT monitors work by emitting a cathode ray or electron at high speed in a vacuum tube. The beam of electrons will reflect the screen that has a fluorescent nature when in wear on the screen. This electron reflection will form the pattern on the screen while the cathode rays will continue to reflect the monitor screen according to the input obtained from the conversion of digital data to electromagnetic wave units. Therefore, this monitor produces a large radiation beam.

The advantages of this monitor is usually only at a cheap price, while the loss is quite a lot. Some of the disadvantages include high power, high radiation that makes the eyes uncomfortable when watching too much of this monitor, its physical size is large and heavy, making it difficult to move around freely.

2. LCD Monitor

The development of monitor technology brings us to the next generation LCD monitor, once the CRT is out of date. LCD monitor is a monitor that is prepared by utilizing liquid crystals that can provide color quality much better than CRT. On LCD monitors have more light variants and consist of units of pixels, or a single point of liquid crystal that does not emit its own light. The light source is a white fluorescent light that is on the back of the arrangement of the crystals.

The dots of light or pixels that amount to very much, from thousands to millions will change the appearance of the image seen on the screen. The liquid crystal pole passed by the electric current will change due to the polarization effect of the magnetic field arising so that it will let some color just be passed to the point of the crystal, so that there are various kinds of images that you can see on your computer screen.

The LCD monitor has several advantages, including clearer and crisper picture quality, and is more comfortable with the user's eyes when in use, more power-efficient, physically thinner and easier to manage the display when compared to a CRT monitor. Meanwhile, the lack of LCD monitors among them are limited vision angles, limited color depth and also a relatively more expensive price when compared with CRTs. If your LCD monitor is having problems, be sure to learn how to resolve it such as learning how to fix a white LCD monitor.

3. LED Monitor
The LED monitor can be considered as a monitor which is the result of refinement or development of the LCD monitor. Color quality tends to be better and also more color variants. There are more sophisticated features and functions compared to previous monitors, such as touch screen technology, power savings of up to 70% compared to LCDs, much sharper pixel density, longer usage life and also more slim size as well as have better lighting than LCD monitors, which can experience black blank problems and can be solved by repairing dark LCD monitors. The disadvantages include more
 expensive and higher sentiments.

4. Plasma Monitor

The next type of monitor you might find is a plasma type monitor. These monitors are basically trying to combine good LCD image quality, with wide CRT vision angles, resulting in a slim monitor that can be viewed from multiple angles.

The drawback is the high contrast level, which reaches 10000: 1, the price is relatively expensive, high power consumption and high temperature when used and large pixel pitch. The workings of this monitor make use of an emissive flat screen, with a light source of phosphorus which will then release the plasma charge between two flat screens. The emitted gas does not produce mercury. If there is a problem as the monitor keeps flashing, do not forget to learn what causes the monitor to blink to get over it.

5. OLED Monitor

The next type of monitor that can be used as a computer monitor is an OLED monitor or an Organic Light-Emitting Diode monitor. This monitor utilizes a light-emitting semiconductor made from an organic layer. OLED monitors can be very thin, up to less than 1mm.

To create an OLED monitor, a glass layer made of indium tin oxide as anode, an organic layer of aromatic diamine, a light-emitting metal coating layer such as 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum, and a cathode layer. The layers are arranged in such a way that it finally makes a screen. The result of a combination of various layers is capable of producing very high quality images and sharp.

However, these monitors tend to be less widely used on home computers in general because of their relatively expensive price. Most types of monitors this one is widely used in smart phones. However, did not rule out this type of monitor will be an option when everything is affordable. Do not forget to learn the cause of monitor no signal detected when you experience it to overcome it yes.

maybe so much that I can say about the type of monitor type thank you.

The Advantages Of MacBooks From Ordinary Laptops

Juli 25, 2018
MacBooks are laptops or laptops made by Apple that have a lot of uniqueness and advantages. No wonder many people start to look at this portable Mac computer device.

As we know, a variety of Windows PCs and laptops are common around us. But not so with a Mac computer device. We only find a collection of Mac users, especially MacBook laptops in certain places.

I've been using ordinary Windows laptops and some Windows PC products for a number of years, and then in the past year I switched to Mac using a MacBook, so maybe I can tell a little about the advantages and advantages of MacBooks compared to regular laptops.

Flagship Products With Premium Materials

Maybe you often hear the term low entry laptop, mid-end, to high-end right? In contrast to various other manufacturers who play around at all levels of the market, Apple only targets high-end markets.

That means, all of these MacBook products are flagship products that clearly have quality and advantages compared to ordinary laptops of different classes. So don't compare MacBooks with middle or lower class laptops, but MacBooks can only be compared to other flagship products.

In addition, the MacBook is also equipped with a very premium material. Try holding it and feel the difference. Some other flagship laptops that I have held have no premium material like this.

Good Quality Screen

Currently there are enough PCs or laptops equipped with 4K or even 5K screens. Usually the resolution is used as a benchmark to determine whether the quality of the screen is good or not. Then what about Apple

Admittedly, Apple is indeed somewhat late to follow the trend of this resolution. Macs with 4K and 5K resolutions are only on the upper class iMac line, and the MacBook laptop line still doesn't support 4K resolution.

But that does not mean the MacBook display is ugly. Apple has its own trademark named Retina Display. No matter how much screen resolution, as long as the screen is Retina Display technology, Apple guarantees the screen quality is very good and sharp.

Hardware tends to be durable

For this one, it also seems to have to include usage factors as well, but according to many reviews that are out there, Apple's hardware tends to last longer than ordinary laptops.

Maybe you can see some people who sell used MacBooks, usually the battery can still last 4-5 hours even though the age is more than 3 years. Of course this is better than the quality of non Apple laptops.

Long battery life

How long can a laptop battery last? The average MacBook can last up to 10 hours for light and standard use, even the MacBook Air can last for 12 hours, aka a battery that lasts a day.

Very rare Windows laptops can last up to 10 hours. Even if there is, it must have other factors such as a larger battery capacity. Unlike MacBooks that rely more on optimal use of resources.

Fitting and Light Size

It turns out that the MacBook battery capacity is not big-big, really for the size of the flagship product, which is only about 5000 mAh. What's even more surprising is the physical size of the battery. Yes, with such capacity can be made very small.

Today, the MacBook has a 12-inch screen size, 13-inch MacBook Air, and the MacBook Pro has a size of 13 Inch and 15 Inch. MacBook thickness and weight are also very small.

Apple has also switched to Intel Core M in the 12-inch MacBook line so that it is very possible for Apple to make super-thin MacBook laptops that have ever been made, but still with the best capabilities.

MacOS Operating System

Surely you also agree that only MacBook laptop with macOS operating system. Ordinary laptops must use other OS such as Windows, Linux Distro, and so forth. Then what are the advantages of macOS compared to Windows?

For more details, you can read this separate article that discusses in more detail and depth about macOS and Windows.

Minimum Virus

Because macos is different from Windows, meaning that all viruses that attack Windows will not be able to attack Mac and MacBook. When another laptop is exposed to a virus, MacBook users can relax as long as they use MacOS.

But the Mac can still get the virus. It's just that the Mac is very small, so you don't have to worry about this.

Seamless Performance

One effect of using MacOS is the MacBook has a very good performance, much better than ordinary laptop. One reason is because Apple itself is designing the hardware and software.

Unlike other laptops that use Microsoft's Windows operating system, so they have to make special drivers and software to customize their hardware and software. But the producers still can not access the Windows source code because it's not open source.

Apple Weapon Developer

If you plan to develop a variety of applications for Apple platforms such as iOS, MacOS, WatchOS, and TVOS, then inevitably you have to buy a Mac with a MacOS operating system.

What about other non Apple laptops? Well, now there is no other choice but to buy a Mac or MacBook because Apple has never released tools and SDKs to other platforms other than Apple's own.

Dukungan Apple

Apple's support for Mac and MacBook users is arguably very good. You will find complete documentation on how to use Mac to Mac troubleshooting. Of course this is one of the advantages of MacBooks from other non-Apple laptops.

Honestly, I've tried exploring here and there various other laptop manufacturer websites but there is no complete support for Apple. There are even producers who don't have documentation at all.


Advantages that might not need to be mentioned again. Since the number of Mac and MacBook users is rare and only certain groups use it, you are indirectly seen as exclusive.

maybe all that I can say thank you.

best pc games 2018 hd graphics

Juli 23, 2018
1. Resident Evil 7

Resident Evil 7 is one of the best action and horror games with the story combined with survival power to complete the stage of the game until the end. And you should know, Resident Evil 7 is different from previous series, Resident Evil this time using the first person camera angle.

This game is more about Survival Horror, in the Gameplay you will be provided a variety of weapons that can be used as needed, such as injections and serum to weaken various types of Zombies. Part that is also present in some previous series, in this game you will be found in the stage to solve Puzzle that makes tense and enough drain the brain, Resident Evil 7: Biohazard is the most clear series of RE in terms of graphics.

2. GTA V

GTA V is an open-world game with action-adventure theme. This game has a first and third person perspective. GTA V is developed by Rockstar Games and players are given the freedom to explore the game.

In-game Players are assigned to manage all three characters during a single-player mode that can exchange one and 2 other characters during a game and while completing a mission. The GTA V story focuses on criminal plots, and the various missions that involve themselves with shootings and races. This is the best recommendation for you who like to do criminal things through the game world.

3. Battlefield

Are you looking for shooting games or looking for war games other than Point Blank or CSGO? maybe you should try Battlefield game. the game was produced by EA Dice, and has been a rival of the Call Of Duty game of its time. For visual video, this game is about World War I.

When playing this game, you will find various tensions and also excitement while in the battlefield with classic combat equipment. The best war game recommendation, recommendation of war games similar to PB.

4. Dishonored 2

To create a game that can be recognized as the best game by gamers is a very difficult thing. Of the many open-world games, Dishonored games are among the best to say. Dishonored 2 is an interactive game, in this game, you will get many opportunities to be explored.

In addition, we can choose their own methods to complete the game, there are even methods without using force. Dishonored 2 is a direct sequel series of the first series, telling of Emily Kaldwin who eventually grows into a mature woman and given the responsibility by leading the throne of Dunwall.

5. Forza Horizon 3

Game Forza Horizon 3 is one of the games developed by the Playground Games, and has a cross-platform, which is the ninth series of the Forza series. The Forza 3 map feature is twice as big as the previous series. Lots of new places on this series, and there's a stock of 350 cars available for you players.

If in the second Forza series players only act as a racer, well in this third series you players will play as a director for a festival. There you will be burdened with the task of making a great festival. And as a director, you will get the facility to hire drivers, organize races, organize characters and vehicles. Seriously? and this is one of the best graphics game recommendations.

maybe so much that I can say about the best pc games 2018 hd graphics

History and Development of Motherboard

Juli 22, 2018
History and Development of Motherboard

Understanding and Function of Motherboard - Hardware or in the Indonesian language is often called computer hardware is a computer part whose form can be seen and touched. Hardware can also be interpreted sebgai tool that can receive and process data. Currently, a lot of hardware that works on the computer, both the main hardware and additional hardware. One of the hardware that will be discussed is the Motherboard (board iduk) and its development history.

 Understanding Motherboard

Motherboard is a computer hardware that has the main and most vital role. Where in the way it works, the motherboard assumes the task of managing the technical issues surrounding the BIOS (Basic Input Output System), Chipset (input-output connection controller), RAM (temporary data storage memory), VGA card (graphic data storage memory) , processor, and Additional card (PCI, ISA).

Motherboard Function

Motherboard serves as the center of all computer hardware so that all computer hardware can be connected between one component with another component. For example: processor, Memory (RAM), hard disk, optical drive, keyboard, mouse, monitor and all computer hardware installed and connected using motherboard.

History of motherboard development

The motherboard was first made in 1977, by Apple for its Apple II. For information, once computer components such as CPU and memory are placed on a single card, and connected by cables. The look is very complicated.

Due to the hassle of connecting one PC component with another component, the computer product developers had an idea to create a special place to store various computer peripherals. A wide board of various slots was created as a place to plug in the PC components. The board is named after the motherboard.

In the early developers of the motherboard are the company Micronics, Mylex, AMI, Huppauge, Orchid Technology, Elitegroup, and DFI. In addition, there are still some other moherboard manufacturers from Taiwan.

Between 1980 and 1990, the incorporation of several peripheral functions into the motherboard pushed motherboard imagery into an increasingly economical form. The first integration is to combine keyboards, mouse, and floopy drive slots, as well as serial and parallel ports into the motherboard.

If you notice, until now the standard form of the motherboard was still changing. The first standards used are used PC / XT, and used IBM. After that, reappear AT (Advance Technology). After AT, there is a new standard that is still used, namely ATX (Advance Technology Extension). ATX standard is then modified into Mini ATX and Micro ATX.

Currently, Intel also issued a standard BTX (Balanced Technology Extension). Unfortunately, the market is not yet interested in using it. VIA computer manufacturer also issued its own standard, which is mini ITX.

Changes in motherboard design and technology continues to evolve. In the early 2000s, integration expanded. Motherboard now features sound and VGA that is directly attached to the body, other terms onboard. Other features that can now be obtained from several motherboards in the form of USB connectivity, FireWire, and LAN.

There are several companies that produce motherboards, among others:


Asus's name may already sound very familiar to our ears, Asus's company was created in 1989, when four computer engineers, Wayne Hsieh, Ted Hsu, MT Liao and TH Tung intend to set up a new company to advance the IT industry in Taiwan. ASUS is considered the world's largest manufacturer, when it comes to motherboards, and one of the best motherboard brands for gaming. Asustek, apart from making motherboards, also makes many other consumer electronics PCs, which are sold worldwide. ASUS has been linked with Intel that can be traced back to the day from the release of CPU 486. Therefore, ASUS received samples before Intel CPU, before other manufacturers. ASUS is famous as one of the best motherboard brands.


GIGABYTE Founded in 1986, headquartered in Taiwan, Taiwan, is known as the industry's leading IT brand. GIGABYTE started from development and research and has since become one of the market leaders for motherboards and graphics cards. Gigabyte motherboards always get good appreciation from different computer supply sites. Overall customer satisfaction for Gigabyte motherboards is positive, and they have a solid level of customer satisfaction. Also, they are considered top-notch, when it comes to keeping up with new technology.


the company was founded in 1986, and has emerged as one of the best motherboard brands of 2010. Many new models of MSI motherboards are well designed products, which can be compared with brands like ASUS and Gigabyte, MSI motherboards however cost less. The board has also been shipping with a good suite of software. This brand is not very well know, but seems to be a reliable one, and good value for money.


Intel Corporation founded 1968 is a multinational company based in the United States, Intel may already be familiar as a maker of one of the best computer processors, but many people do not know that they also make world-class motherboards. When it comes to manufacturing motherboards, Intel has different benefits, because it has knowledge in processor and chipset specifications, which helps to make motherboards a stable and high performance. However, the weakness of Intel motherboards, they are only compatible with Intel processors.

maybe so much that I can say about the history of the motherboard thanks.

History and Development of Vga Card

Juli 22, 2018

VGA, short for Video Graphics Adapter, is a standard analog computer display first marketed by IBM in 1987. Although the VGA standard is no longer in use because it has been replaced by newer standards, VGA is still implemented on Pocket PC. VGA is the last graphical standard followed by the majority of manufacturers of computer graphics card maker. Display Windows until now still using VGA mode because it is supported by many manufacturers of monitors and graphics cards.

The term VGA is also often used to refer to a screen resolution of 640 × 480, whatever the graphics card manufacturer is. The VGA card is useful for translating computer output to the monitor. For the graphic design process or playing a video game, a high-powered graphics card is required. Manufacturers of famous graphics cards include ATI and nVidia.

In addition, VGA can also refer to the 15-pin VGA connector which is still widely used to deliver analog video signals to the monitor. The VGA standard is officially superseded by the XGA standard from IBM, but in fact VGA is superseded by Super VGA.

The VGA Card function is to convert a digital signal from a computer into a graphical display on the monitor screen. The VGA card (Video Graphic Adapter) is useful for translating the computer output to the monitor. To draw / design graphics or to play games. VGA Card is often also called Card display, VGA card or graphics card. The embedded graphics card is called an expansion slot. Chipset / processor on the VGA card, so many kinds because each VGA card factory has its flagship Chipset. There are many manufacturers of VGA card chipsets like NVidia, 3DFX, S3, ATi, Matrox, SiS, Cirrus Logic, Number Nine (# 9), Trident, Tseng, 3D Labs, STB, OTi, and so on.

VGA cards use several kinds of memory such as:

DRAM (Dynamic RAM) speed 80 ns or 70 ns, there is also MD-RAM (Multiple Dynamic RAM) that uses layered DRAM. DRAM is used on many 8, 16, or 32 bit graphics cards. The use of DRAM is for entry-level computers, which do not require high speed and large color. EDO RAM speed 60 ns to 35 ns, EDO RAM is mostly found on 64 bit graphics card. EDO RAM commonly used has 60 MHz 60 / 40ns speed. Examples of VGA cards that use EDO memory are WinFast S280 / S600 3D, Diamond Stealth 2000 3D, ATi Mach 64, etc. VRAM (Video RAM) speed 20 or 10 ns, VRAM is more expensive than DRAM because VRAM is faster than DRAM. The use of VRAM on a VGA card is intended for high-end computers. VRAM is usually installed on VGA which is concentrated for graphic design. Examples of VGA cards that use VRAM are Diamond Fire GL, Diamond Stealth 3000 3D, Diamond Stealth 64, etc. SGRAM (Synchronous Graphic RAM) speed is less than 10 ns, SGRAM on VGA card is also based on SDRAM technology on computer main memory. SGRAM is widely used on high grade graphics cards that have 3D accelerator capabilities. Examples of VGA cards that use SGRAM are Matrox MGA Millennium, Matrox Mystique 3D, Diamond Stealth II S220, Diamond Viper, ASUS 3D Explorer, ATI Rage II 3D Pro, RAMBUS RAM usage on VGA card computer is still small (RAMBUS is memory used on Nintendo gaming machines, Sega, so far only Creative Labs production graphics card (MA-302, MA-332 Graphic Blaster 3D and Graphic Blaster xXtreme) .

History of VGA Developments

On a PC there are 3 components that play an important role in terms of graphics performance: processor, memory, and VGA cards. VGA (Video Graphics Adapter), is a standard analog computer display. VGA can also be interpreted as a component whose job is to generate visuals from computers and hardware that gives commands to the monitor to display the visual output we can see. VGA was first marketed in 1987 by IBM (International Bushiness Machines Corporation) shortened to IBM. IBM is one of the US companies that manufactures and manufactures hardware and software. IBM was founded on July 15, 1911 and operates in 1888 based in Armonk, New York, USA.

VGA consists of two types, namely: onboard VGA and VGA Card (with VGA card).

Onboard VGA

Onboard VGA is a processing unit that has been integrated into the motherboard, then the VGA card is not needed anymore. The existence of this onboard VGA chipset is not fixed because this onboard VGA can be set to inactive if the user wants to install the VGA card he wants.

Since IBM PC was born in 1981, almost all PCs have separate memory for frame buffers, which are memory blocks where the images that come out on the monitor screen are mapped. This is not a problem for systems that have monochrome video bebasis characters. Because the required frame buffer is only 2 KB. But a modern-based GUI (Graphical User Interface) that requires a high-resolution, bit-mapped screen and true color is greedy. The 640 x 480 pixel resolution screen with 8 bit color requests a frame buffer of 300 KB, while the 1024 x 768 pixel resolution screen with 24 bit color requires 2.25 MB of memory. The dedicated buffer frames are fixed-sized.

No matter which screen mode the frame buffer is using it should be able to accommodate the highest resolution and the best color depth it can support. Software can not utilize the remaining memory of the frame buffer although used is low resolution and 16 colors. This is the cause by how Video packaging and its configuration in a special graphical sub-system. Thus, the Mega-mega bytes of memory are wasted. UMA (Unified Memory Architecture) brings together a frame buffer with main memory.

VGA Card (with VGA card)

Since the first IBM PC system, in the computer there must be a graphics card unit, whether it's CGA, EGA, MCGA, VGA, or something else. By using a VGA card instead of onboard it will get better performance than a system that uses UMA (Unified Memory Architecture). If an 8-bit graphic card with 512 KB of memory that can display 256 colors at 640 X 480 resolution is enough, then not anymore. The minimum requirement for a multimedia computer is a 64 bit graphics card with 1 MB of memory.

History of 3D Graphics Developments

Now that technology is getting more and more advanced, developers of GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) are starting to improve their ability to produce a good vga card. Here are some examples of vga cards from the first to the present:


The extension of "ViRGE is Virtual Reality Graphics Engine", this vga is the first generation that has been using 3D graphics technology. S3 ViRGE has spec. 64-bit offers 4MB of onboard memory, core and memory clockspeeds up to 66 MHz, and also supports feature features such as Bilinear and Trilenear texture filtering, MIP mapping, Alpha blending, Z-buffering, and other 3D textures.


This VGA is the first artificial of Nvidia, this vga is also created with Microsoft's design technology DirectX 5 API. NVIDIA NV3 has a spec. 4 MB of memory, 100 MHz core clockspeeds, 1.6 GB / s bandwidth, 206 MHz RAMDAC and 2x AGP support.


This VGA has the latest chipset output from Nvidia successfully memaukkan 1.4 billion transistors into the GPU. This VGA is also the most powerful Nvidia series and powerful capabilities.

Graphic Accelerator Today's chipsets incorporate built-in 3D acceleration capabilities on VGA cards. In addition to the VGA card, there is now a computer supporting pheriperal called 3D accelerator. 3D accelerator functions to process / translate data / 3D images more perfectly. 3D accelerators whose existence does not require an IRQ are capable of manipulating complex 3D graphics. For example in 3D games can be displayed a much more realistic image. For many of the 3D graphics processing functions that were once performed by the processor on the motherboard, is now done by 3D graphics processor on the 3D accelerator. With this division of labor then the processor can do more processing work more. In addition programmers do not need to create 3D graphics function, because the function has been provided by 3D accelerator. The 3D chipset on the VGA card is not as good as if you were using 3D accelerator as a supporter (3D accelerator installed separately along with VGA card). Even so the 3D Chipset on VGA card also supports 'some' 3D acceleration facility on 3D accelerator. As an important note that, the 3D accelerator function will be optimal if the software / games are run using special functions in the 3D accelerator. Software / games that support this facility began to grow, which is well known is the support for 3D accelerator that has a VooDoo 3D FX chipset, Rendition Verite, and 3D Labs Permedia.


This vga card can be used by installing on the vga slot, this type of vga is rarely used, because of the limitations of the features, the features are the slots on the front there are coakan, and the type of pin is straight vertically.


The beginning of vga agp, due to the significant increase of data transfer from memory, cpu to display equipment, so that made agp slot to install vga agp type, vga agp was launched based on voltage values ​​used, namely agp 1x and 2x with voltage 3.3 v, while 4x and 8x 1.5 volt. The last vga agp that appeared was a pro and universal pro type with 3.3 and 1.5 volt capabilities. The features of this vga is the shape of its vertical pin with a shape similar to a honeycomb formation.


The development of the next pci slot has a remarkable ability, with the name PCI Express, designed to install cutting-edge equipment, the 2 well-known PCI Express slot versions are PCI Express 1 x and 16 x, PCI Express 16x is specifically used to install vga type PCI Express, and 1x for the purpose of installing additional equipment. Physical characteristics of vga pci express type is to see the shape that has the opposite form of ordinary PCI.

With the existence of VGA that develop from time to time, it can be concluded:

On a PC there are 3 components that play an important role in terms of graphics performance: processor, memory, and VGA cards.
VGA consists of two types, namely: onboard VGA and VGA Card (with VGA card).
Onboard VGA is a processing unit that has been integrated into the motherboard.
VGA Card is a processing unit that does not converge on the motherboard.
 In addition to the VGA card, there is now a computer supporting pheriperal called 3D accelerator.
Compared with VGA Card, the advantages of 3D accelerator function to process / translate data / 3D images more perfectly.

maybe so much that i can say about the history and development of vga

Functions And 8 Types Of RAM Included

Juli 22, 2018
Currently already been circulating so many types of RAM with the capacity and speed of data access is different. Starting from the name of DRAM, SDRAM, RDRAM, SRAM, EDORAM, FPM DRAM RAM, and more.

Understanding RAM itself is a computer component that serves as a temporary memory storage when the computer is being used.

RAM storage is temporary, this means that after the computer is dead, the RAM will return empty and filled with new data needed when the computer is used again. Interestingly, the contents of RAM can be accessed randomly or randomly so that RAM is faster than hard disk or other storage media.

RAM itself has a function that is quite vital in computer devices. The main function of RAM is to speed up the processing of data on the computer. No wonder, the bigger the RAM installed, the faster the computer works.

In addition, RAM also serves as a storage medium when the computer or laptop in a state of life. For example, when you type a document in Microsoft Word, then you close it without saving it first, the document you type will be stored in RAM memory. So, you can open the document through the last history of Microsoft Word earlier.


Here are the types of RAM and functions along with the characteristics that you should know.

1. DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory)
This type of RAM is a semiconductor memory that requires a capacitor as a pedestal to refresh existing data in it. This RAM has a higher speed than EDO RAM. However, it is lower than SRAM.

DRAM uses one transistor and capacitor per bit in its structure. This makes this RAM has a high enough density. DRAM has a working frequency that varies between 4.7 Mhz to 40 Mhz.

2. SDRAM (Sychronous Dynamic Random Access Memory)
SDRAM into RAM that has a high enough speed compared to other types of RAM that is the speed up to 100 - 133 Mhz. This RAM is widely used in 1996 to 2003 and is a type of RAM that has 168 Pin data transfer channels. The characteristics of this RAM there are two slits in the legs. This RAM will be placed on the DIMM / SDRAM slot on the motherboard that can hold memory from 16 MB to 1GB.

3. RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory)
This component was introduced in 1995 with a speed of 600 Mbytes / sec. In 1997, the speed of RDRAM increased to 700 MBps, and in 1998 to 1.6 GBps. No wonder, this RAM was originally developed for computers with Pentium 4 processors or for gaming devices. The memory slot for RDRAM is 184 pins.4. SRAM (Static Random Access Memory)

This type of RAM is made of a kind of semi conductor that does not require a capacitor and does not require frequent refreshment so performance can be faster. This is because these components only use transistors without capacitors.

SRAM is designed using a six-transistor cluster design to store every bit of information. Unfortunately, SRAM has the disadvantage that its cost of production is expensive. No wonder, this RAM is only available in small capacity and used for the really important part. This chip is often used for memory chace. SRAM speed is able to offset the speed of 500 MHz processor or more.

5. EDORAM (Extended Data Out Random Access Memory)
 RAM was developed in 1995 and has a faster ability to read and transfer data compared to other types of RAM. The memory slot for EDORAM is 72 pins. The shape of this component is longer than the SIMM RAM. No wonder this RAM is very suitable to be installed on all Pentium computers. In addition, this component is also suitable to be installed on a computer with a bus reaching 66 Mhz.

6. FPM DRAM (First Page Mode DRAM)
This type of RAM is the original form or initial form of DRAM. The maximum transfer rate for the L2 cache is approximately 176 MB per second. FPM works in the frequency range 16 MHz to 66 MHz with access time up to 50ns.

7. Flash RAM
Flash RAM is a type of low-capacity memory used in electronic devices such as TVs, VCRs, to old phones. This Momori is installed on devices that require a refresh with little power. 

8. VGRAM (Video Graphic Random Access Memory)

VGRAM is typically used to store pixel content for a graphical exposure. Use of this chip will provide good video performance and reduce the pressure on the CPU.9. DDR SDRAM (Double Date Rate SDRAM)

This type of RAM to be one that has a very high speed among the types of RAM. No wonder, this RAM is used in various devices today. This RAM is capable of running two instructions at once in the same time unit. This memory has 184 pins. This type of RAM also consumes less power.

The next types of RAM such as DDR2 RAM to DDR3 RAM is the development of DDR SDRAM. Both types of RAM is used in many computers today because more power saving and more optimal with high speed. For this type of memory capacity was quite large up to 4 GB per chipnya.
10. SO - DIMM (Small Outline Dual in-line Memory Module)
This memory is the type of memory used in notebook devices. Physical form is quite compact, approximately half of the amount of DDR RAM so that more space saving. This type of memory
Maybe so much that I can say about the function and type of ram memory type

History and Development of Microsoft Windows

Juli 21, 2018

History and Development of Microsoft Windows

The early establishment of Microsoft

We all know already who the creator of Microsoft, which today is one of the largest technology companies in the world. Microsoft Corporation was pioneered by a dropout student named Bll Gates, or the full name William Henry Gates III, founded in 1975 with headquarters in Redmond, Washington DC, United States.

Currently Microsoft is not only a software development company, but also has development in many fields related to telecommunications technology and information technology.

Currently, Microsoft is more known as one of the companies that developed a computer operating system, which is not only widely used, but also very legendary, because it can be said that some first generation computers using Microsoft operating systems and software development to be able to run it. You could say Microsoft made software is a living legend that still exists to this day.

As a corporation engaged in the development of technology, information and communications. Microsoft itself has several business objectives. The following are the business goals of Microsoft Corporation:

Developing Windows Client, a Windows based Micrososft operating system on clients and servers

    Information worker
    Microsoft Business
    Server anf Tools
    Mobile and Embedded
    Home anf Entertainment

History and development of Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows is one of the most widely used computer operating systems in the world, and is also one of the development and rising products of Microsoft Corporation for approximately 30 years. Microsoft Windows itself, on its application and practice in the world of computer operating systems began to be developed based on DOS-based data.DOS itself is one of the computer operating system which in its time is one of the operating system used in all computers. Short for Disk Operating System, DOS is a computer operating system that runs using disks within the computer. Currently when we buy a laptop, then the DOS operating system is definitely installed in it.

To run this DOS operating system, the user should at least have an understanding of some simple and complex compiler languages ​​and commands. Even just to copy just one file, you may need a lot of time to type commands in DOS. Of course the use of DOS is very troublesome. Therefore, by using DOS-based development, Microsoft windows began to develop its own operating system, which is easier and more user friendly.

Microsoft Windows itself is basically divided into 3 generations, namely genreasi DOS base, NT-based Kernel and WinFS-based. The following is the development of the Microsoft Windows operating system along with a full description of its history:

Windows 1.0 (era of 1985)

It is the first version of Windows operating system development after MS DOS. By using the operating system Windows 1.0, the user has not only enjoy the DOS black screen alone, but already can enjoy the user interface display using bitmap units and use the mouse as a tool to move the cursor and pointer.

The keyboard functionality, which is an important hardware in MS-DOS, has been replaced with Mouse, and makes it easier for users to use simple commands or commands, such as copy and paste.
Windows 2.0 (era of 1987)

Is a development of Windows 1.0. Windows version 2.0 mini is a Windows operating system developed along with the increase in specifications and speed data processing embedded on the Intel 286 processor. Memory on the computer enlarged, making it possible to do multitasking, such as piling windows explorer windows.

In this era, began many developers who began to develop various applications and utilities based on Windows. In this operating system also, the keyboard combination on the keyboard also becomes better and faster in terms of operationalization of this Windows operating system.

Windows 2.03 (1990 era)

In 1990, precisely in May, Windows 2.03 was released. Still a development of the previous DOS-based Windows operating system, this time Windows 2.03 began embedding protected mode capability and extended memory on its computers, which is a feature of Intel's latest processor, the Intel 386.

Windows 2.03 has begun to focus on the speed of data processing, reliability and utility in processing data and also in performing various jobs required by the user.

Windows 3.0 (in 1990)

Still using the same base processor as windows 2.03, the Intel 386, Windows released the third version of their flagship operating system. Has a better quality improvement speed and more optimal again compared with previous versions of the operating system.

This operating system uses a 26 bit graphics system, and has a lot of additional features that are very useful. This feature is the embryo of the development of Windows features to date, such as Program Manager, File Manager, Print Manager, and the use of better icons and improved utility.Windows 3.11 For Workgroups (1993 era)

Is a Windows operating system that works in a computer network system. Windows 3.11 for workgroups adds an important feature, peer to peer workgroup and support for local network (LAN) systems that are being discussed and used in those days.

Windows For Workgroups also has affiliation and support from the network operating system that has evolved previously, namely Novell Netware, which causes the operating system Windows 3.11 For Workgroups is much ogled by the businessmen, as the operating system at their company that has implemented a local network system or LAN.

Windows NT 3.1 (in the 1993 era)

It is the first kernel-based operating system from Windows to launch. The launch accompanied the previous DOS-based Windows operating system, which is also named Windows 3.1. Have the ability and support for open GL, as well as Netwae and also print server features.

Another advantage of windows 3.1 NT is the naming of longer files, up to 255 characters, from which previously only amounted to 8 + 3 characters only. In the year of its release, also, in 1993, it was claimed that Windows NT 3.1 had already sold more than 25 million licenses, which were used all over the world at that time

Windows 1995 (era 1995)

Back to develop the operating system based on MS-DOS, then Microsoft then issued its newest operating system, which is Windows 95. Windows 95 is a Windows 98 (Windows 3.1) enhancement integrated with TCP / IP, has support for Internet access, especially using dial up networking, and facilitate the user in installing additional software and applications. Using a 32 bit system which is able to improve multimedia and networking capabilities are much better and integrated.

The concept of the use of Windows-style start menu that is still used today is introduced in the Windows 95 operating system. With the start menu, the user can easily find the application to be run, and become much faster in accessing the Windows 95 operating system.

The use of Windows Explorer also began to be introduced, as well as having additional Internet Explorer, to support the needs of surfing from usernya, which in the era of the 90s, the internet has been widely developed around the world.

Windows NT Workstation 4.0

It is a workstation network operating system developed by windows on the base of the Windows 95 operating system. The operating system is also the last kernel-based operating system that uses an additional NT name in its operating system.

In the next era, in 2000, the kernel-based Windows operating system, will no longer include NT information, which starts with Windows 2000.

Windows 1998 (era of 1998)

For an operating system era of the 1990s, Windows 98 as an operating system is very good and qualified. Windows 1998 operating system is able to work better, and has compatibility support for many games. In this era, began many companies and game developers who glance at PC Games business seriously.

In Windows 98 is also starting to be pinned many additional latest tech support, such as AGP, USB, Active Desktop, as well as the latest version of Internet Explorer better and faster. In addition, Windows 98 is also compatible with the use of DVD, as a media data reader in his DVD Rom.

Windows 1998 SE (second Edition, in the 1999 era)

Is a Windows 98 operating system developed with the addition of features that semakina make Windows 98 into an operating system that is widely used by users around the world. Windows 98 SE is known as an operating system that is user friendly and easy to use.

And has a lot of additional support, especially in terms of entertainment, with the update on Internet Explorer, DirectX, Home networking, and use the principle of hybrit 16 and 32 bit.

Windows 2000 Professional (in 1999)

Is a development of Windows NT 4.0, which can also we are familiar with the name of Windows NT 5. It is a super development of Windows NT 4.0 operating system. Having a base or base of Windows NT Workstation 4.0, Windows 2000 pro has compatibility and ease of access to the network, both local and internet.

It also supports a variety of plug and play hardware, such as USB, IEEE 1394, and has the ability to use the infrared feature. In addition, in Windows 2000 this pro, there is also compatibility of wireless networks, which greatly facilitates the user in tehubung into the network.Windows Millennium Edition (in the 2000s)

Welcoming the new Millennium, Windows also publishes Windows 1998 operating system known as Windows ME or Millenium Edition. An operating system created for personal needs, and is an operating system that has a lot of multimedia features are very complete, and still developed to date.

Features Windows Movie Maker, Mindows Media Player, as well as various additional multimedia systems. Windows ME is the last Windows operating system that uses the base of Windows 95 and 98, which, in turn, will be used as the Windows 2000 operating system base Windows that will be developed next.

Windows XP (Era of 2001)

It looks like Windows XP is the most popular Windows operating system among its users, because it has exceptional compatibility, and supports lots of additional applications and software. The operating system that uses the Windows 2000 base code is an operating system that relies on eXPerience, hence the name Windows XP.

Windows Vista (2006 - 2007)

The next Windows operating system is Windows Vista. Windows Vista may not be as popular as previous versions of Windows operating system, Windows XP. However, Windows Vista has several significant changes that are different than Windows XP, and are beginning to tune in to the Windows 7 operating system.

Windows 7

Windows 7 is a windows operating system which is an update of Windows Vista. If Windows Vista is less used, then Windows 7 is an operating system whose popularity outperforms Windows Vista. It can be said, Windows 7 and also Windows XP are both the most popular Windows operating system and are also widely used around the world today.

The Windows 7 operating system was created and developed in 2009, an operating system that still holds development in Windows Vista, but focuses more on the basic development of Windows, thus making Windows 7 a compatible operating system with many applications and devices. Just like Windows Vista, Windows 7 also offers good graphics capabilities.  

Windows 8

The successor of Windows 7, which seems to be less long-lived is Windows 8. The younger sibling of Windows 7 was released in 2012. It is said to be short-lived, because just 2 years later, an update to Windows 8 has been done, where Windows 8 is replaced by Windows 10.

Windows 8 provides massive and significant changes to the GUI view as well as experience using the operating system. Starting from the removal of the start button that has been maintained since the early generation of Windows, until the display model of the menu and also the user interface.

Unfortunately, the use of Windows 8 operating system is much criticized, because many users who are accustomed to using Windows XP, Vista, and also 7, feel awkward and also confused in using this Windows 8 operating system.

Windows 10

Regardless of criticism, Windows 8 is one of the most interesting versions of Windows, especially in terms of interface, although sometimes some applications are not compatible with this Windows 8 operating system.
Windows 10

Not much to discuss about Windows 10, because currently there are still quite a few users of windows 10. Officially launched in 2015, currently Windows 10 is still widely used on Windows 8 users who want to update. The main feature of Windows 10 development is the return of some typical features of the previous windows, ie the start button and also some other basic features.
The advantages of Windows 10

To be sure, the main advantages of Windows 10 is a feature - fitru a more familiar to the user, which is not contained in Windows 8, such as the start menu button. In addition, in one Windows 10 operating system, the entire Windows 10 operating system is already integrated with all Microsoft devices, including Microsoft accounts and also Microsoft One Store.

However, unfortunately Windows 10 has several flaws, one of which is Windows 10 is a version and also edition Windows operating system last, and more intended for some circles, because basically, Windows 10 has not been physically final, causing the operating system this is not yet optimal for general users.

maybe just a discussion about the history of microsoft windows.